fredag 10 februari 2023

Veckans Podcast-avsnitt! v. 6

 Hidden Brain

Avsnitt: Reframing Your Reality: Part 1

Längd: 48:37

Släpptes: 2022-07


Väldigt annorlunda avsnitt där podcast-hosten ibland agerar som en berättarröst och ibland som en intervjuare. Jag tycker det var ett spännande upplägg då det kändes mer som en berättelse än en intervjupodd. Riktigt bra!

Part 1:

If you were climbing Everest, you could imagine that there would be some nights that were cold, dark, that you would feel tired or strained. But, what did you expect? Did you really expect climbing Everest would be a walk in the park? Would climbing Everest be such a great feat if it was just a walk in the park? 

The shift in perspective, in mindset: Going from this place like “uh, this stress and struggle is a sign that I’m not worthy, that something is wrong. This stress, this struggle, this cold dark night. This is part of the process. This is it. This is what makes you great. This is what makes you succeed.”

Nothing else changed, except for my mindset. I was the same person, in the same circumstances, doing the same thing, with the same meetings and tasks ahead of me. The only thing that changed was my mindset. Was my view of stress, of struggle in this process of getting a PH.D. 

Q: What are mindsets?

A: We view mindsets as core assumptions that we make about the nature of ourselves or things in the world. There are types of beliefs, it's a very powerful type of belief when it is about our own abilities or intelligence, but we also have mindsets about things, mindsets about the nature of stress, the capabilities or limitations of our own bodies. Mindsets about the enoughness of the foods that we are eating, the exercise we are doing. They are perspectives, frameworks, just assumptions about the meaning or the nature of things.

Mindsets shape our expectations. 

You start noticing the things that confirm the prediction that you had in the first place, called confirmation bias, and it tends to fulfill this self sustaining loop, because then you are getting data that feeds back to that belief or prediction.

Which version of our mindset is going to help us more in the long run?

The key is that the mindsets that you have, have an effect, they influence what you expect, they influence what you pay attention to, they influence our physiology and they influence what we actually do. And therefore they create the reality we apply. 

Mindsets influence our minds, but it’s just a piece of the puzzle. But it is a piece of the puzzle that we have not paid enough attention to. 

Reframing Your Reality - Part 2

Längd: 50:56

Släpptes: 2022-07


This change in mindset, with the same exact treatment, doing the same exact thing. The only thing that changed was their mindset about the meaning of symptoms, and that mindset made all the difference. It made the treatment more meaningful, more enjoyable, and ultimately more effective. 

A run treadmill task. It was a very controlled treadmill task where they are on a treadmill, they run at a comfortable pace and then we gradually increased the treadmill each minute, up to a point where they can not run anymore because it was too hard. During that, we are measuring their physiological measures of their cardiovascular capacity. We are looking at their metabolic exchange rate, how quickly they are able to convert oxygen into carbon dioxide. We are also looking at their ventilation capacity, how much air can they pump through their lungs per minute. They came back 1 week later and were asked to run the same exact task... Only this time, before they started, we said we had some information from their genetic profile. We had taken samples from them and had actually figured out what their genes were. We had their actual genetic risk profile and we told them what it was. But we didn't do this honestly for everybody. Some were told the truth, some were not. Half were told they were protected and haft were told they were at risk in both groups that were indeed in risk and those who were protected. If genes were primarily responsible for how much people were able to tolerate difficult exercise, the lie should have no effect. People with the risky version of the exercise -related gene should be able to tolerate less hard workout. On the other hand, if mindsets were responsible for outcome, you would expect that the lie would make a big difference. People with the form of the gene that predisposed them to physical activity, but were lied they had the gene that allowed them to work out hard and score well on the treadmill task.... …That information changed their physiology on the same exact treadmill task in ways that conferred the risk information that was given to them. People who were told they were at risk, regardless of whether or not they were at risk, actually reduced the rate at which they were able to convert oxygen into carbon dioxide and reduced the amount of air they were able to produce through their lungs, in fact that was a reduction of 2 liters per minute which is a significant amount compared to their own baseline levels. So, the same people, doing the same task, simply based on what they were told, changed how they responded physiologically in this case.

The milkshake study

We gave the participants the same exact milkshake. At two different time points. It was about 350 kcal, a modest amount of sugar milkshake. But at one point we told people it was an indulgent shake, 620 kcal, high fat, high calorie and sugar. At the other time we told them it was 140 kcal, a light fat diet shake, we called it the sense shake. And what we found was, even though they drank the same exact milkshake both times, their bodys responded differently when measuring their gut peptide levels, in this case we were looking at Ghrelin which is a hunger and metabolism regulating hormone. What we found was that when they thought they were eating an indulgent milkshake, their Grelin levels dropped at a threefold rate compared to when they thought they were consuming this sensible shake. 

In other words, when they thought they were having an indulgent milkshake, they felt fuller compared to when they thought they were having the healthier milkshake. Physiologically they felt more full. 

What do you make of this study?

Our bodies response to foods is not merely the product of the actual objective qualities of the nutrients. It’s also a product of what we believe and expect of those nutrients. The fact that it’s the combination of those things, the objective reality of what we are eating and our beliefs about what we are eating, that alone is groundbreaking. 

A 30 % increase in vegetable consumption then labeled “healthy snack with no added sugar” instead of “carrots” or “beans”. 

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